Space Probe Flybys: Closest Approach Data

compiled by Wm. Robert Johnston
18 January 2006

Space probes which have made flybys:

probe (nation)launchbodydatetimedistance
notes and source
Luna 1 (USSR)2 Jan 1959MoonJan 19597,6935,955failed lunar impact (Jane's, Wilson)
Pioneer 4 (USA)3 Mar 1959MoonMar 195959,983(Jane's)
Luna 3 (USSR)4 Oct 1959Moon6 Oct 195914:167,9006,200(Wilson)
Venera 1 (USSR)12 Feb 1961VENUS20 May 196199,800failed impact attempt (Jane's, Wilson)
Ranger 3 (USA)26 Jan 1962Moon28 Jan 196223:2336,785failed lunar impact (Wilson)
Mariner 2 (USA)27 Aug 1962VENUS14 Dec 196234,827(Wilson)
Ranger 5 (USA)18 Oct 1962Moon21 Oct 1962724failed lunar impact (Jane's, Wilson)
Mars 1 (USSR)1 Nov 1962MARS19 Jun 1963196,000193,000contact lost before flyby (Jane's, Wilson)
Luna 4 (USSR)2 Apr 1963Moon6 Apr 196310,2678,529failed lunar landing (Jane's, Wilson)
Zond 1 (USSR)2 Apr 1964VENUS19 Jul 1964100,000contact lost before flyby (Jane's)
Mariner 4 (USA)28 Nov 1964MARS15 Jul 196501:019,844(Jane's, Wilson)
Zond 2 (USSR)30 Nov 1964MARS6 Aug 19641,500contact lost before flyby (Jane's)
Luna 6 (USSR)8 Jun 1965Moon11 Jun 1963163,000161,000failed (Jane's, Wilson)
Zond 3 (USSR)18 Jul 1965Moon20 Jul 196502:009,220(Wilson)
Venera 2 (USSR)12 Nov 1965VENUS27 Feb 196623,810contact lost before flyby (Jane's)
Mariner 5 (USA)14 Jun 1967VENUS19 Oct 196717:34:563,990(Jane's, Wilson)
Zond 5 (USSR)14 Sep 1968Moon18 Sep 19681,950(Jane's)
Zond 6 (USSR)10 Nov 1968Moon14 Nov 19682,420(Jane's)
Mariner 6 (USA)25 Feb 1969MARS31 Jul 196905:193,412(Jane's, Wilson)
Mariner 7 (USA)27 Mar 1969MARS5 Aug 196905:00:493,524(Jane's, Wilson)
Zond 7 (USSR)7 Aug 1969Moon11 Aug 19692,000(Jane's)
Zond 8 (USSR)20 Oct 1970Moon24 Oct 19701,120(Jane's)
Pioneer 10 (USA)3 Mar 1972multiple flybys--see table below
Pioneer 11 (USA)5 Apr 1973multiple flybys--see table below
Mars 4 (USSR)21 Jul 1973MARS10 Feb 19742,200failed to enter orbit (Jane's)
Mars 6 (USSR)5 Aug 1973MARS12 Mar 1974deployed lander (Jane's)
Mars 7 (USSR)9 Aug 1973MARS9 Mar 19741,300failed Mars landing (Jane's)
Mariner 10 (USA)4 Nov 1973multiple flybys--see table below
Centaur AC-34 (USA)4 Nov 1973VENUS5 Feb 197445,000upper stage for Mariner 10 (McDowell)
Voyager 2 (USA)20 Aug 1977multiple flybys--see table below
Voyager 1 (USA)5 Sep 1977multiple flybys--see table below
ISEE 3/ICE (USA)12 Aug 1978multiple flybys--see table below
Venera 11 (USSR)9 Sep 1978VENUS25 Dec 197835,000(Wilson)
Venera 12 (USSR)14 Sep 1978VENUS21 Dec 197835,000(Wilson)
Venera 13 (USSR)30 Oct 1981VENUS1 Mar 198236,000(Wilson)
Venera 14 (USSR)4 Nov 1981VENUS5 Mar 198236,000(Wilson)
Vega 1 (USSR)15 Dec 1984multiple flybys--see table below
Vega 2 (USSR)21 Dec 1984multiple flybys--see table below
Sakigake (Japan)7 Jan 1985multiple flybys--see table below
Giotto (ESA)2 Jul 1985multiple flybys--see table below
Suisei (Japan)18 Aug 19851P/Halley8 Mar 198613:06151,000151,000(Wilson)
Galileo (USA)18 Oct 1989multiple flybys--see table below
Ulysses (ESA/USA)6 Oct 1990multiple flybys--see table below
NEAR Shoemaker (USA)17 Feb 1996multiple flybys--see table below
Cassini (USA/ESA)15 Oct 1997multiple flybys--see table below
Deep Space 1 (USA)24 Oct 1998multiple flybys--see table below
Stardust (USA)7 Feb 1999multiple flybys--see table below
Genesis (USA)8 Aug 2001multiple flybys--see table below
Deep Impact (USA)12 Jan 20059P/Tempel 14 Jul 2005500delivered impactor probe (McDowell)

Pioneer 10 (USA)
Launch: 3 Mar 1972

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
JUPITER4 Dec 197302:25130,300(Jane's)

Pioneer 11 (USA)
Launch: 5 Apr 1973

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
JUPITER3 Dec 197417:2242,940(Jane's)
SATURN1 Sep 197920,800(Jane's)
Janus1 Sep 197914:522,5002,500(McDowell)
Mimas1 Sep 197916:20103,000103,000(McDowell)

Mariner 10 (USA)
Launch: 4 Nov 1973

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
VENUS5 Feb 197417:015,768(Wilson)
MERCURY29 Mar 197420:47703(Wilson)
MERCURY21 Sep 197420:5948,069(Wilson)
MERCURY16 Mar 197522:39327(Wilson)

Voyager 2 (USA)
Launch: 20 Aug 1977

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes
Callisto8 Jul 1979214,930212,530(NASA)
Ganymede9 Jul 197962,13059,500(NASA)
Europa9 Jul 1979205,720204,150(NASA)
Io9 Jul 19791,129,9001,128,100(NASA)
Amalthea9 Jul 1979558,370558,300(NASA)
JUPITER9 Jul 197922:29:51721,670(JPL, NASA)
SATURN26 Aug 198103:24:57161,000(JPL, NASA)
Atlas26 Aug 1981287,000287,000(NASA)
Prometheus26 Aug 1981247,000247,000(NASA)
Pandora26 Aug 1981107,000107,000(NASA)
Epimetheus26 Aug 1981147,000147,000(NASA)
Janus26 Aug 1981223,000223,000(NASA)
Mimas26 Aug 1981309,930309,730(NASA)
Enceladus26 Aug 198103:4587,00686,754(NASA, McDowell)
Tethys25 Aug 198106:1293,00092,474(NASA, McDowell)
Telesto26 Aug 1981270,000270,000(NASA)
Calypso26 Aug 1981151,590151,580(NASA)
Dione26 Aug 1981502,310501,750(NASA)
Helene25 Aug 1981314,090314,070(NASA)
Rhea26 Aug 1981645,260644,490(NASA)
Titan24 Aug 1981666,190663,610(NASA)
Hyperion24 Aug 1981431,370431,200(NASA)
Iapetus22 Aug 1981908,680907,950(NASA)
Phoebe4 Sep 19812,075,6402,075,530(NASA)
URANUS24 Jan 198617:59:47107,000(JPL, NASA)
Miranda24 Jan 198629,00029,000(NASA)
Ariel24 Jan 1986127,000126,000(NASA)
Umbriel24 Jan 1986325,000324,000(NASA)
Titania24 Jan 1986365,200364,400(NASA)
Oberon24 Jan 1986470,600469,800(NASA)
NEPTUNE25 Aug 198903:56:3629,2405,016(JPL, NASA, Jane's)
Larissa25 Aug 198960,18060,080(NASA)
Proteus25 Aug 198997,86097,660(NASA)
Triton25 Aug 198939,79038,437.5(NASA, Jane's)
Nereid25 Aug 19894,652,8804,652,710(NASA)

Voyager 1 (USA)
Launch: 5 Sep 1977

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
Amalthea5 Mar 1979420,200420,100(NASA)
JUPITER5 Mar 197912:04:36348,890(NASA)
Io5 Mar 197920,57018,750(NASA)
Europa5 Mar 1979733,760732,190(NASA)
Ganymede6 Mar 1979?02:35?114,710112,080(NASA, Wilson)
Callisto6 Mar 197917:50126,400124,000(NASA, Wilson)
Rhea12 Nov 198006:2173,99073,216(NASA, McDowell)
Titan12 Nov 198005:406,4903,915(NASA, McDowell)
SATURN12 Nov 198023:46:30184,300(JPL, NASA)
Pandora12 Nov 1980270,000270,000(NASA)
Janus12 Nov 1980297,000297,000(NASA)
Enceladus12 Nov 1980202,040201,780(NASA)
Tethys12 Nov 1980415,670415,140(NASA)
Telesto12 Nov 1980233,000233,000(NASA)
Dione12 Nov 1980161,520160,960(NASA)
Atlas12-13 Nov 1980219,000219,000(NASA)
Prometheus12-13 Nov 1980300,000300,000(NASA)
Mimas13 Nov 198001:4288,43088,231(NASA, McDowell)
Epimetheus13 Nov 1980121,000121,000(NASA)
Calypso13 Nov 1980432,000432,000(NASA)
Helene13 Nov 1980237,000237,000(NASA)
Hyperion13 Nov 1980880,440880,300(NASA)
Iapetus14 Nov 19802,470,0002,469,000(NASA)

Launch: 12 Aug 1978

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
Moon30 Mar 198319,570primarily for gravity assist (Wilson)
Moon23 Apr 198321,137primarily for gravity assist (Wilson)
Moon27 Sep 198322,790primarily for gravity assist (Wilson)
Moon21 Oct 198317,440primarily for gravity assist (Wilson)
Moon22 Dec 198318:45120primarily for gravity assist (Wilson)
21P/Giacobini-Zinner11 Sep 198511:027,862(Wilson)
1P/Halley28 Mar 198640,200,00040,200,000(Jane's)

Vega 1 (USSR)
Launch: 15 Dec 1984

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
VENUS11 Jun 198539,000(Wilson)
1P/Halley6 Mar 198607:20:068,890(Wilson)

Vega 2 (USSR)
Launch: 21 Dec 1984

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
VENUS15 Jun 198524,500(Wilson)
1P/Halley9 Mar 198607:208,030(Wilson)

Launch: 7 Jan 1985

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
1P/Halley11 Mar 198604:186,990,0006,990,000(Wilson)
45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova11 Feb 199610,00010,000(McDowell)

Launch: 2 Jul 1985

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
1P/Halley14 Mar 198600:03:01.8596(Jane's)
EARTH2 Jul 199010:01:1822,730primarily for gravity assist (Jane's)
26P/Grigg-Skjellerup10 Jul 199215:30:56200(Jane's)

Galileo (USA)
Launch: 18 Oct 1989
Entered orbit around Jupiter:

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
VENUS10 Feb 199005:58:4816,106primarily for gravity assist (Jane's)
EARTH8 Dec 199020:34:34960primarily for gravity assist (Jane's)
(951) Gaspra29 Oct 199122:37(Jane's)
Moon8 Dec 199203:58110,000(Jane's)
EARTH8 Dec 199215:09:25303.1primarily for gravity assist (Jane's)
(243) Ida28 Aug 19931652052400(Belton et ali)
Europa7 Dec 199513:0932,500(JPL)
Io7 Dec 199517:45:58897.3(Jup)
JUPITER7 Dec 199521:54214,000(JPL)
Ganymede27 Jun 199606:29:06.7835.0(JPL)
Callisto27 Jun 199613:131,040,000(JPL)
JUPITER28 Jun 199600:31789,000718,000(JPL, JPL)
Europa28 Jun 199601:22156,000(JPL)
Io28 Jun 199618:28697,000(JPL)
Ganymede6 Sep 199618:59:34261.4(JPL, Jup)
Io7 Sep 199605:25441,000(JPL)
JUPITER7 Sep 199613:37762,000691,000(JPL)
Europa7 Sep 199617:06673,000(JPL)
Callisto8 Sep 199610:24424,000(JPL)
Callisto4 Nov 199613:34:281,135.9(JPL, Jup)
Io6 Nov 199612:05441,000(JPL)
JUPITER6 Nov 199613:31658,000587,000(JPL)
Europa6 Nov 199618:4331,947(JPL)
Ganymede7 Nov 199604:491,050,000(JPL)
Io18 Dec 199621:37321,000(JPL)
JUPITER19 Dec 199603:22655,000584,000(JPL)
Europa19 Dec 199606:52:58692.1(JPL, Jup)
Ganymede19 Dec 199620:13792,000(JPL)
Callisto20 Dec 199613:331,490,000(JPL)
Ganymede19 Jan 199709:361,150,000(JPL)
JUPITER20 Jan 199716:28646,000575,000(JPL)
Europa20 Jan 199717:1227,419(JPL)
Callisto21 Jan 199720:18600,000(JPL)
Io22 Jan 199701:251,470,000(JPL)
Europa20 Feb 199717:06:10586.3(JPL, Jup)
JUPITER4 Apr 199711:04650,000580,000(JPL)
Europa4 Apr 199723,244(JPL)
Ganymede5 Apr 199707:09:583,101.9(JPL, Jup)
Callisto6 May 199733,499(JPL)
Ganymede7 May 199715:56:101,603.2(JPL, Jup)
JUPITER8 May 199711:42660,000590,000(JPL)
Callisto25 Jun 199713:47:50418.1(JPL, Jup)
Ganymede26 Jun 199717:19:3579,961(JPL, Jup)
JUPITER27 Jun 199711:52770,000700,000(JPL)
Callisto17 Sep 199700:18:55535.3(JPL, Jup)
JUPITER18 Sep 199723:10660,000590,000(JPL)
Europa6 Nov 199720:31:442,043.3(JPL, Jup)
JUPITER7 Nov 199700:42650,000580,000(JPL)
Ganymede15 Dec 199709:58:0914,400(Jup)
Europa16 Dec 199712:04:23200.9(JPL, Jup)
Europa10 Feb 1998(JPL)
Europa29 Mar 199813:21:051,644.1(JPL, Jup)
Europa31 May 199821:12:562,514.5(JPL, Jup)
Europa21 Jul 199805:03:441,834.2(JPL, Jup)
Europa26 Sep 199803:54:203,582.4(JPL, Jup)
Europa22 Nov 199811:38:262,270.8(JPL, Jup)
Europa1 Feb 199902:19:501,439.4(JPL, Jup)
Callisto5 May 199913:56:181,321.4(JPL, Jup)
Callisto30 Jun 199907:46:501,048.1(JPL, Jup)
Callisto14 Aug 199908:30:522,299.3(JPL, Jup)
Callisto16 Sep 199917:27:021,052.4(JPL, Jup)
Io11 Oct 199904:33:03611.3(JPL, Jup)
Europa25 Nov 199916:29:058,600(Jup)
Io26 Nov 199904:05:21300.5(JPL, Jup)
Europa3 Jan 200017:59:43348.4(Jup)
Io22 Feb 200013:46:412,013(Jup)
Ganymede20 May 200010:10:10808.7(Jup)
Ganymede28 Dec 200008:25:272,337.5(McDowell, Jup)
JUPITER23 May 2001530,000460,000(JPL)
Callisto25 May 200111:23:58131.9(JPL, Jup)
Io6 Aug 200104:59:20196.7(Planetary Society, Jup)
Io16 Oct 200101:23:20182.4(Jup)
Io17 Jan 200214:08:23103.2(Jup)
Amalthea5 Nov 200206:18:40162.9(JPL, Jup)

Ulysses (ESA/USA)
Launch: 6 Oct 1990
Entered solar orbit:

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
JUPITER8 Feb 1992380,000310,000primarily for gravity assist (Jane's)

NEAR Shoemaker
Launch: 17 Feb 1996
Entered orbit around (433) Eros: 14 Feb 2000

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
(253) Mathilde27 June 199712:55:54.51,2121,188(Veverka)
EARTH22 Jan 1998478primarily for gravity assist (NSSDC)
(433) Eros23 Dec 199818:41:233,8273,820(Yeomans)

Launch: 15 Oct 1997
Entered orbit around Saturn:

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
VENUS26 Apr 1998284primarily for gravity assist (Cassini)
VENUS24 Jun 1999600primarily for gravity assist (Cassini)
EARTH18 Aug 19991,166primarily for gravity assist (Cassini)
(2685) Masursky23 Jan 20001,600,0001,600,000(Cassini)
Himalia18 Dec 20004,440,000(Porco)
JUPITER30 Dec 200010:059,720,000primarily for gravity assist (Porco)
Phoebe11 Jun 200419:032,1702,068(McDowell)
Polydeuces30 Jun 200468,000(Cassini)
Calypso30 Jun 200422:2752,080(McDowell)
Methone1 Jul 200451,000(Cassini)
Mimas1 Jul 200400:3176,60076,400(McDowell)
Pandora1 Jul 200401:1789,850(McDowell)
Janus1 Jul 200401:5267,800(McDowell)
SATURN1 Jul 200478,000(Cassini)
Prometheus1 Jul 200403:58107,400(McDowell)
Pan1 Jul 200458,000(Cassini)
Titan26 Oct 200415:301,174(McDowell)
SATURN28 Oct 2004374,000(Cassini)
Titan13 Dec 200411:381,200(McDowell)
Dione15 Dec 200401:4472,500(McDowell)
Mimas15 Dec 200405:01107,700107,500(McDowell)
SATURN15 Dec 2004290,000(Cassini)
Iapetus1 Jan 200501:37123,400(McDowell)
Titan14 Jan 200511:1260,000(McDowell)
Methone16 Jan 2005113,000(Cassini)
Mimas16 Jan 200506:08108,000(McDowell)
SATURN16 Jan 2005290,000(Cassini)
Pallene16 Jan 200591,000(Cassini)
Titan15 Feb 200506:581,577(McDowell)
Pandora16 Feb 200523:04102,600(McDowell)
Epimetheus17 Feb 200500:1173,500(McDowell)
Atlas17 Feb 200500:2477,000(McDowell)
Calypso17 Feb 200583,000(Cassini)
SATURN17 Feb 2005211,000(Cassini)
Enceladus17 Feb 200503:301,176(McDowell)
Polydeuces17 Feb 20056,189(McDowell)
Helene9 Mar 200504:3474,500(McDowell)
Enceladus9 Mar 200509:08504(McDowell)
Atlas9 Mar 200511:2973,800(McDowell)
SATURN9 Mar 2005211,000(Cassini)
Tethys9 Mar 200511:5582,500(McDowell)
Tethys29 Mar 200518:47109,200(McDowell)
Enceladus29 Mar 200520:3455,600(McDowell)
Pallene29 Mar 200531,000(Cassini)
Atlas29 Mar 200522:0297,400(McDowell)
Epimetheus29 Mar 200523:2562,100(McDowell)
SATURN29 Mar 2005211,000(Cassini)
Methone30 Mar 200553,000(Cassini)
Telesto30 Mar 200575,000(Cassini)
Polydeuces30 Mar 2005104,000(Cassini)
Titan31 Mar 200520:052,402(McDowell)
Pallene14 Apr 2005119,000(Cassini)
Methone14 Apr 200551,000(Cassini)
SATURN14 Apr 2005157,000(Cassini)
Epimetheus15 Apr 200500:1546,000(McDowell)
Mimas15 Apr 200501:2682,600(McDowell)
Calypso15 Apr 200504:2270,470(McDowell)
Titan16 Apr 200519:111,025(McDowell)
Helene2 May 200519:20114,200(McDowell)
Tethys2 May 200521:4851,800(McDowell)
Epimetheus2 May 200523:03118,500(McDowell)
SATURN3 May 2005217,000(Cassini)
Telesto3 May 2005108,000(Cassini)
SATURN21 May 2005217,000(Cassini)
Atlas21 May 200506:3099,700(McDowell)
Prometheus21 May 200506:48107,400(McDowell)
Enceladus21 May 200508:15102,100(McDowell)
Pallene8 Jun 200565,000(Cassini)
Calypso8 Jun 200510:2597,810(McDowell)
SATURN8 Jun 2005217,000(Cassini)
Pan26 Jun 200595,000(Cassini)
Telesto26 Jun 200587,000(Cassini)
SATURN26 Jun 2005217,000(Cassini)
Prometheus14 Jul 2005122,000(Cassini)
Enceladus14 Jul 2005200(Cassini)
Methone14 Jul 200537,000(Cassini)
Epimetheus14 Jul 200577,000(Cassini)
SATURN14 Jul 2005217,000(Cassini)
Mimas2 Aug 200563,000(Cassini)
Prometheus2 Aug 200585,000(Cassini)
SATURN2 Aug 2005217,000(Cassini)
Calypso2 Aug 2005106,000(Cassini)
Tethys20 Aug 2005123,000(Cassini)
SATURN20 Aug 2005217,000(Cassini)
Telesto20 Aug 2005105,000(Cassini)
Titan22 Aug 20053,800(Cassini)
Pandora5 Sep 200551,000(Cassini)
Prometheus5 Sep 2005103,000(Cassini)
SATURN5 Sep 2005169,000(Cassini)
Methone5 Sep 200563,000(Cassini)
Titan7 Sep 20051,000(Cassini)
Calypso23 Sep 200591,000(Cassini)
Mimas23 Sep 200570,000(Cassini)
SATURN23 Sep 2005181,000(Cassini)
Prometheus24 Sep 200598,000(Cassini)
Tethys24 Sep 20051,500(Cassini)
Hyperion26 Sep 2005500(Cassini)
Dione11 Oct 2005500(Cassini)
Telesto11 Oct 200510,000(Cassini)
Pallene11 Oct 200550,000(Cassini)
SATURN12 Oct 2005181,000(Cassini)
Atlas12 Oct 200555,000(Cassini)
Enceladus12 Oct 200549,000(Cassini)
Titan28 Oct 20051,400(Cassini)
Methone29 Oct 200599,000(Cassini)
SATURN29 Oct 2005278,000(Cassini)
Calypso30 Oct 2005108,000(Cassini)
Rhea26 Nov 2005500(Cassini)
Enceladus27 Nov 2005108,000(Cassini)
SATURN27 Nov 2005278,000(Cassini)
Helene27 Nov 200586,000(Cassini)
Enceladus24 Dec 200594,000(Cassini)
SATURN24 Dec 2005278,000(Cassini)
Pallene24 Dec 2005107,000(Cassini)
Telesto25 Dec 200519,000(Cassini)
Helene25 Dec 200575,000(Cassini)
Titan26 Dec 200510,400(Cassini)
Titan15 Jan 20062,000(Cassini)
SATURN17 Jan 2006338,000(Cassini)

Deep Space 1
Launch: 24 Oct 1998
Entered solar orbit:

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
(9969) Braille29 Jul 199904:4627(DS1, McDowell)
19P/Borrelly22 Sep 200122:302,171(DS1, McDowell)

Launch: 7 Feb 1999
Entered solar orbit:

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
EARTH15 Jan 200111:14:2811,0773,706primarily for gravity assist (Stardust, McDowell)
Moon16 Jan 200102:00101,00098,000(Stardust)
(5535) Annefrank2 Nov 20023,300(Stardust)
81P/Wild 22 Jan 2004240(Stardust)
Moon14 Jan 200618:30(McDowell)
EARTH15 Jan 200610:006,629258successfully delivered Sample Return Capsule to Earth's surface (McDowell)

Genesis (USSR)
Launch: 8 Aug 2001

bodydatetimedistance (km)altitude (km)notes and source
EARTH8 Sep 2004delivered capsule to Earth's surface (McDowell)
EARTH6 Nov 200460,670(McDowell)


© 2002-2004, 2006 by Wm. Robert Johnston.
Last updated 18 January 2006.
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