List of space physics probes beyond Earth orbit

compiled by Wm. Robert Johnston
last updated 18 January 2006

For a listing of related links, follow links from program names. See end of table for explanation of entries and list of sources.

Sun--operating in orbitSun--past probes
Mercury--past probes
Venus--past probes
Moon--operating in orbitMoon--past probes
Mars--operating in orbitMars--past probes
Jupiter--past probes
Saturn--operating in orbitSaturn--past probes
Titan--operating in Saturn orbitTitan--past probes
Uranus--past probes
Neptune--past probes

Sun--operating in orbit

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
perihelion (AU)aphelion (AU)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
Advanced Composition Explorer
USA-NASA ACE1997-045AL11.01.0025 Aug 1997
Deep ImpactUSA-NASA Deep Impact2005-001Atrans0.911.6280.62005.0112 Jan 200512 Jan 2005-presentflyby and subprobe impact, Comet 9P/Tempel 1
HayabusaJapan Hayabusa2003-019Atrans0.9531.6967.59 May 2003May 2003-presentnear (25143) Itokawa, landing accomplished
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotrpy Probe
USA-NASAMAP2001-027AL211.01030 Jun 20011 Oct 2001-present
Mars Reconnaissance OrbiterUSA-NASA MRO2005-029Atrans1.0131.6803.12005.0812 Aug 200512 Aug 2005-presentplan Mars orbit
MessengerUSA-NASA Messenger2004-030Anear0.921.086.43 Aug 20043 Aug 2004-presentplan Mercury orbit
RosettaESA Rosetta2004-006Anear0.8851.0940.42 Mar 20042 Mar 2004-presentplan (2867) Steins flyby, (21) Lutetia flyby, Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko orbit/landing
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
USA-NASA, ESA SOHO1995-065AL10.99102 Dec 19952 Dec 1995-present
StardustUSA-NASA Stardust1999-003Atrans0.921.701.92006.017 Feb 19997 Feb 1999-presentflyby of (5535) Annefrank 2Nov2002 at 3300 km; flyby of Comet Wild 2 2Jan2004 at 240 km; delivery of sample return capsule to Earth on 15Jan2006
UlyssesUSA-NASA, ESA Ulysses1990-090Bhigh1.345.4179.11992.026 Oct 19906 Oct 1990-presentJupiter flyby
Venus ExpressESA Venus Express2005-045Atrans0.7020.9930.262005.119 Nov 20059 Nov 2005-presentplan Venus orbit
VoyagerUSA-NASA Voyager 11977-084Aescape3.725 Sep 19775 Sep 1977-presentJupiter/Saturn flybys
Voyager 21977-076Aescape78.8120 Aug 197720 Aug 1977-presentJupiter/Saturn/Uranus/Neptune flybys
WindUSA-NASA Wind1994-071AL10.9921.0280.0471 Nov 1994Nov 1994-present

Moon--operating in orbit

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology
ESA SMART-12004-043Cmid471288090.062005.0227 Sep 200315 Nov 2004-presentdata from Earth orbit 2003-2004

Mars--operating in orbit

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
Mars ExpressESA Mars Express2003-022Aecc2581156086.32005.032 Jun 200325 Dec 2003-present
Mars Global Surveyor
USA-NASA Mars Global Surveyor1996-062Alow37543592.912004.127 Nov 199611 Sep 1997-present
2001 Mars OdysseyUSA-NASA Mars Odyssey2001-014A992951937 Apr 200123 Oct 2001-present

Saturn--current probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
CassiniUSA-NASA, ESACassini1997-061Aecc33800041000002006.0115 Oct 19971 Jul 2004-presentflybys of Titan, Enceladus, others

Titan--current probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
CassiniUSA-NASA, ESA Cassini1997-061Aflyby1174
15 Oct 199726 Oct 2004 (CA)
13 Dec 2004 (CA)
15 Feb 2005 (CA)
31 Mar 2005 (CA)
16 Apr 2005 (CA)
22 Aug 2005 (CA)
7 Sep 2005 (CA)
28 Oct 2005 (CA)
15 Jan 2006 (CA)
Saturn orbit, multiple Titan flybys

Sun--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
Clementine 1 (DSPSE)USA Clementine 1 (DSPSE)1997-004Anear25 Jan 199425 Jan 1994-21 Feb 1994
3 May 1994-Jun 1994
Deep Space 1USA-NASA Deep Space 11998-061Atrans1.31.440.2224 Oct 199824 Oct 1998-18 Dec 2001flyby of (9969) Braille 29Jul1999 at 26 km; flyby of Comet Borrelly 22Sep2001 at 2171 km; defunct
GenesisUSA-NASA Genesis Bus2001-034Anear0.8960.990.282004.098 Aug 20018 Aug 2001-Sep 2004+carried sample return
Genesis return canister2001-034AL18 Aug 20018 Aug 2001-8 Sep 2004hard landing but samples recovered
GiottoESA Giotto1985-056Ainner0.7331.042.091992.072 Jul 1985Jul 1985-23 Jul 1992flyby of Comet 1P/Halley 14Mar1986 at 596 km; flyby of Comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup 10Jul1992 at 200 km; defunct
HeliosGermany Helios 11974-097Ainner0.3090.9850.021975.0110 Dec 197410 Dec 1974-?defunct?
Helios 21976-003Ainner0.2890.98301976.0715 Jan 197615 Jan 1976-?defunct?
ICEUSA-NASA ICE (ISEE 3)1978-079Anear0.9261.0330.11990.0112 Aug 197812 Aug 1978-Jan 1994+flyby of Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner 11Sep1985 at 7862 km; defunct?
Mariner 2USA-NASA Mariner 21962-041Ainner0.7051.2271.427 Aug 196227 Aug 1962-3 Jan 1963flyby of Venus
Mariner 10USA-NASA Mariner 101973-085Ainner0.470.764 Nov 19734 Nov 1973-24 Mar 1975flyby of Venus, three flybys of Mercury, defunct
NozomiJapan Nozomi (Planet-B)1998-041Atrans0.9761.44433 Jul 19983 Jul 1998-Dec 2003+defunct?
PioneerUSA-NASA Pioneer 61965-105Ainner0.8140.9830.171982.0116 Dec 196516 Dec 1965-8 Dec 2000defunct
Pioneer 71966-075Anear1.0091.1250.11976.0217 Aug 196617 Aug 1966-Mar 1995defunct
Pioneer 81967-123Anear0.9921.0880.061975.0913 Dec 196713 Dec 1967-22 Aug 1996defunct
Pioneer 91968-100Ainner0.7540.990.091976.028 Nov 19688 Nov 1968-18 May 1983defunct
Pioneer 10/11USA-NASA Pioneer 101972-012Aescape33 Mar 19723 Mar 1972-25 Feb 2003defunct
Pioneer 111973-019Aescape14.66 Apr 19736 Apr 1973-2001defunct

Mercury--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
Mariner 10USA-NASA Mariner 101973-085Aflyby?
4 Nov 197329 Mar 1974 (CA)
21 Sep 1974 (CA)
16 Mar 1975 (CA)
solar orbit, 3 Mercury flybys

Venus--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
MagellanUSA-NASA Magellan1989-033Becc182854385.51994.104 May 198910 Aug 1990-12 Oct 1994defunct, atmospheric entry 14Oct1994
Pioneer VenusUSA-NASA Pioneer Venus 1 Orbiter1978-051Aecc180666301051979.1120 May 19784 Dec 1978-Aug 1992atmospheric entry
Venera 15/16USSR Venera 151983-053A10306603092.51983.102 Jun 198310 Nov 1983-?
Venera 161983-054A160065200877 Jun 198314 Nov 1983-?

Moon--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
Apollo 15USA-NASA Apollo 15 (IRW PL)1971-063Dlow9713528.51971.0826 Jul 19714 Aug 1971-3 Feb 1972defunct, minimal data to Jan1973
Apollo 16USA-NASA Apollo 16 (IRW PL)1972-031Dlow90130169.281972.0416 Apr 197224 Apr 1972-29 May 1972impact
Clementine 1 (DSPSE)USA Clementine 1 (DSPSE)1997-004Aecc40083009025 Jan 199421 Feb 1994-3 May 1994left for solar orbit
HitenJapan Hiten1990-007Aecc4221993.0224 Jan 199015 Feb 1993-10 Apr 1993impact
Lunar OrbiterUSA-NASA Lunar Orbiter 11966-073Aecc58186712.21966.0810 Aug 196714 Aug 1967-29 Oct 1966impactnotes
Lunar Orbiter 21966-100Aecc50185011.81966.116 Nov 1967Nov 1967-11 Oct 1967impact
Lunar Orbiter 31967-008Aecc55184720.91967.025 Feb 19678 Feb 1967-9 Oct 1967impact
Lunar Orbiter 41967-041Amid2706611185.51967.054 May 1967May 1967-31 Oct 1967impact
Lunar Orbiter 51967-075Aecc991499851967.081 Aug 19675 Aug 1967-31 Jan 1968impact
Lunar ProspectorUSA-NASA Lunar Prospector1998-001Alow9910190.551998.127 Jan 199811 Jan 1998-31 Jul 1999impact

Mars--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
Mariner 9USA-NASA Mariner 91971-051Aecc13941714464.3430 May 197114 Nov 1971-27 Nov 1972defunct
PhobosUSSR Phobos 21988-059Amid614564091.312 Jul 198825 Mar 1989-27 Mar 1989defunct
VikingUSA-NASA Viking Lander 11975-075Clanding020 Aug 197520 Jul 1976 (L)defunct
Viking Lander 21975-083Clanding09 Sep 19753 Sep 1976 (L)defunct
Viking Orbiter 11975-075Aecc41156275381980.0820 Aug 197519 Jun 1976-7 Aug 1980defunct
Viking Orbiter 21975-083Aecc3023317680.31980.079 Sep 19757 Aug 1976-25 Jul 1978defunct

Jupiter--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
CassiniUSA-NASA, ESA Cassini1997-061Aflyby972000015 Oct 199730 Dec 2000 (CA)
GalileoUSA-NASA Galileo Orbiter1989-084Becc18 Oct 19897 Dec 1995-21 Sep 2003atmospheric entry, data to 9300 km
Galileo Probe1989-084Elanding18 Oct 1989?-7 Dec 1995atmospheric entry, data to -160 km
Pioneer 10/11USA-NASA Pioneer 101972-012Aflyby1303003 Mar 19724 Dec 1973 (CA)
Pioneer 111973-019Aflyby429406 Apr 19733 Dec 1974 (CA)
UlyssesUSA-NASA, ESA Ulysses1990-090B3100006 Oct 19908 Feb 1992 (CA)
VoyagerUSA-NASA Voyager 11977-084Aflyby2775005 Sep 19775 Mar 1979 (CA)
Voyager 21977-076Aflyby65030020 Aug 19779 Jul 1979 (CA)

Saturn--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
Pioneer 11USA-NASA Pioneer 111973-019Aflyby208006 Apr 19731 Sep 1979 (CA)
VoyagerUSA-NASA Voyager 11977-084Aflyby1240005 Sep 197712 Nov 1980 (CA)
Voyager 21977-076Aflyby10070020 Aug 197726 Aug 1981 (CA)

Titan--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
CassiniUSA-NASA, ESA Huygens1997-061Alanding015 Oct 199714 Jan 2005 (L)
Voyager 1USA-NASA Voyager 11977-084Aflyby39105 Sep 197712 Nov 1980 (CA)

Uranus--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
VoyagerUSA-NASA Voyager 21977-076Aflyby8080020 Aug 197724 Jan 1986 (CA)

Neptune--past probes

programcountrysatellitesat. IDorbit
periapsis (km)apoapsis (km)incl. °epochlaunchon stationnotes
VoyagerUSA-NASA Voyager 21977-076Aflyby501620 Aug 197725 Aug 1989 (CA)


Orbital data is compiled from the following sources:

© 2005, 2006 by Wm. Robert Johnston.
Last modified 18 January 2006.
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