List of U.S. National Monuments

compiled by Wm. Robert Johnston
last updated 10 September 2023

monumentstatedate first
date of national monument statustotal area (km2)privately-owned area (km2)managing agency
(if not NPS)
Admiralty IslandNMAK1978PP-JC19804,127.23100.0000USFS
African Burial GroundNMNY1992PP-GB20060.00140.0000 
Agate Fossil BedsNMNE1965CON196512.37481.2277 
Agua FriaNMAZ2000PP-WC2000287.24595.5199BLM
Alibates Flint QuarriesNMTX1965CON19655.54811.1806 
Avi Kwa AmeNMNV2023PP-JB20232,050.6757 BLM
Aztec RuinsNMNM1923PP-WH19231.28850.1815 
Baaj Nwaavjo I’tah Kukveni-Ancestral Footprints of the Grand CanyonNMAZ2023PP-JB20233,713.4683 BLM/USFS
Basin and RangeNMNV2015PP-BO20152,847.307517.9599BLM
Bears EarsNMUT2016PP-BO20165,519.70170.0000BLM/USFS
Belmont-Paul Women's EqualityNMDC2016PP-BO20160.00140.0000 
Berryessa Snow MountainNMCA2015PP-BO20151,339.21000.0000USFS/BLM
Birmingham Civil RightsNMAL2017PP-BO20170.00360.0000BLM
Booker T. WashingtonNMVA1956CON19560.96720.0000 
Browns CanyonNMCO2015PP-BO201587.47280.0000BLM/USFS
Buck Island ReefNMVI1961PP-JK196176.95290.0000 
California CoastalNMCA2000PP-WC200035.84710.0000BLM
Camp Hale-Continental DivideNMCO2022PP-JB2022217.74000.0000USFS
Camp NelsonNMKY2013PP-DT20181.88170.0000 
Canyon de ChellyNMAZ1931PP-HH1931339.2884339.2884 
Canyons of the AncientsNMCO2000PP-WC2000713.744134.9244BLM
Cape KrusensternNMAK1978PP-JC19782,626.798985.1238 
Capulin VolcanoNMNM1916PP-WW19163.20850.0000 
Carrizo PlainNMCA2001PP-WC2001854.0688107.0920BLM
Casa Grande RuinsNMAZ1889PP-WW19181.91210.0000 
Castillo de San MarcosNMFL1924PP-CC19240.07840.0000 
Castle ClintonNMNY1946CON19460.00400.0000 
Castle MountainsNMCA2016PP-BO201685.08720.0708 
Castner RangeNMTX2023PP-JB202327.00060.0000DOD
Cedar BreaksNMUT1933PP-FR193324.90680.0000 
Cesar E. ChavezNMCA2012PP-BO20120.47170.4292NPS/NCC
Charles Young Buffalo SoldiersNMOH2013PP-BO20130.24140.0000 
Chimney RockNMCO1970PP-BO201219.11730.0000USFS
Craters Of The MoonNMID1924PP-CC2002216.25450.0000NPS/BLM
Devils PostpileNMCA1911PP-WT19113.23830.0000 
Devils TowerNMWY1906PP-TR19065.45200.0012 
Effigy MoundsNMIA1949PP-HT194910.22390.0000 
El MalpaisNMNM1987CON1987462.745916.0304 
El MorroNMNM1906PP-TR19065.17480.9664 
Emmett Till and Mamie Till-MobleyNMMS-IL2023PP-JB20230.0000  
Florissant Fossil BedsNMCO1969CON196925.40650.0000 
Fort FredericaNMGA1936CON19361.23570.0052 
Fort MatanzasNMFL1924PP-CC19241.21450.0065 
Fort McHenryNMHSMD1925CON19390.17510.0000 
Fort MonroeNMVA2011PP-BO20111.48570.0000 
Fort OrdNMCA2012PP-BO201259.3188 BLM
Fort PulaskiNMGA1924PP-CC192422.75590.0000 
Fort StanwixNMNY1935CON19350.06280.0000 
Fort UnionNMNM1954CON19542.91620.0000 
Fossil ButteNMWY1972CON197233.17610.0000 
Freedom RidersNMAL2017PP-BO20170.02440.0000 
George Washington BirthplaceNMVA1930CON19302.64740.4166 
George Washington CarverNMMO1943CON19430.97120.0000 
Giant SequoiaNMCA2000PP-WC20001,426.99040.0000USFS
Gila Cliff DwellingsNMNM1907PP-TR19072.15750.0000NPS/USFS
Gold ButteNMNV2016PP-BO20161,201.66140.0000BLM
Governors IslandNMNY2001PP-WC20010.09270.0020 
Grand Canyon-ParashantNMAZ2000PP-WC20004,131.961816.5355BLM/NPS
Grand PortageNMMN1951CON19582.87310.0000 
Grand Staircase-EscalanteNMUT1996PP-WC19967,567.621510.0281BLM
Hagerman Fossil BedsNMID1988CON198817.60850.0668 
Hanford ReachNMWA2000PP-WC2000786.91500.0000DOE/FWS
Hohokam PimaNMAZ1972CON19726.83926.8392 
Ironwood ForestNMAZ2000PP-WC2000522.267119.5544BLM
Jewel CaveNMSD1908PP-TR19085.15370.0000NPS/USFS
John Day Fossil BedsNMOR1974CON197456.90771.9081 
JurassicNMUT1965CON20193.4398 BLM
Kasha-Katuwe Tent RocksNMNM2001PP-WC200118.80573.0635BLM
Katahdin Woods and WatersNMME2016PP-BO2016354.36000.0000 
Lava BedsNMCA1925PP-CC1925188.95750.0000 
Little Bighorn BattlefieldNMMT1940CON19913.09720.0000 
Marianas TrenchMNMPac2009PP-GB20090.00000.0000FWS/NOAA
Medgar and Myrlie Evers HomeNMMS2020CON20200.00300.0000 
Military Working Dog TeamsNMTX2008CON20080.00000.0000USAF/AHF
Mill Springs BattlefieldNMKY CON20205.89695.6940 
Misty FjordsNMAK1978PP-JC19809,283.78000.0000USFS
Mojave TrailsNMCA2016PP-BO20166,474.97030.0000BLM
Montezuma CastleNMAZ1906PP-TR19064.10970.0681 
Mount Saint HelensNVMWA1982CON1982458.1365 USFS
Muir WoodsNMCA1908PP-TR19082.24010.0000 
Natural BridgesNMUT1908PP-TR190830.90380.0000 
NewberryNVMOR1990CON1990232.1115 USFS
Northeast Canyons and SeamountsMNMMA2016PP-BO20160.00000.0000NOAA/FWS
Oregon CavesNMOR1909PP-WT190918.42950.0000 
Organ Mountains-Desert PeaksNMNM2014PP-BO20142,009.381640.1651BLM
Organ Pipe CactusNMAZ1937PP-FR19371,338.25030.1763 
Pacific Remote IslandsMNMPac2009PP-GB200931.29840.0000FWS
Pipe SpringNMAZ1923PP-WH19230.16190.0000 
Pompeys PillarNMMT2001PP-WC20010.20640.0000BLM
Poverty PointNMLA1988CON19883.68612.0061 
Prehistoric TrackwaysNMNM2009CON200921.36740.0000BLM
President Lincoln and Soldiers' HomeNMDC1973PP-WC20000.00930.0000AFRH/NTHP
Rainbow BridgeNMUT1910PP-WT19100.64750.0000 
Rio Grande Del NorteNMNM2013PP-BO2013982.2125116.7639BLM
Rose AtollMNMAS2009PP-GB20090.08500.0000FWS/NOAA
Russell CaveNMAL1961PP-JK19611.25630.0000 
Saint Francis Dam DisasterNMCA CON20191.42850.0000USFS
Salinas Pueblo MissionsNMNM1909PP-WT19094.33590.3262 
San Gabriel MountainsNMCA2014PP-BO20141,397.0639 USFS
San Juan IslandsNMWA2013PP-BO20133.92550.0000BLM
Sand to SnowNMCA2016PP-BO2016622.98120.0000BLM/USFS
Santa Rosa and San Jacinto MountainsNMCA2000CON2000684.0685263.1954BLM/USFS
Scotts BluffNMNE1919PP-WW191912.15970.1804 
Sonoran DesertNMAZ2001PP-WC20011,968.391024.6858BLM
Statue of LibertyNMNY-NJ1924PP-CC19240.23630.0000 
Sunset Crater VolcanoNMAZ1930PP-HH193312.30240.0000 
Timpanogos CaveNMUT1922PP-WH19331.01170.0000 
Tule LakeNMCA2006PP-GB20190.15130.0000 
Tule Springs Fossil BedsNMNV2014CON201491.66130.0000 
Upper Missouri River BreaksNMMT2001PP-WC20011,527.0651330.6889BLM
Vermillion CliffsNMAZ2000PP-WC20001,131.36352.7640BLM
Virgin Islands Coral ReefNMVI2001PP-WC200151.42770.0000 
Waco MammothNMTX2015PP-BO20150.43390.0000 
Walnut CanyonNMAZ1915PP-WW191512.95241.1244 
Yucca HouseNMCO1919PP-WW19190.13710.0000 

Note: Monuments are denoted as either national monuments (NM), marine national monuments (MNM), national volcanic monuments (NVM), or national monument and historic shrine (NMHS). Managing agencies include:

A breakdown of the current 131 national monuments by managing agency is:

Original authority refers to the act creating the park, either act of Congress or Presidential proclaimation under the Antiquities Act. The table below identifies the codes used for original authority and gives counts of the following:

designating authoritycodecounts
current NM,
current NM,
no longer NM,
still NPS unit
no longer NM,
not in NPS
act of Congress CON 25 610 2 43
proclamation by President Theodore Roosevelt PP-TR 8 1 8 2 19
proclamation by President William Taft PP-WT 6 0 3 1 10
proclamation by President Woodrow Wilson PP-WW 8 0 3 3 14
proclamation by President Warren Harding PP-WH 4 0 3 1 8
proclamation by President Calvin Coolidge PP-CC 8 0 3 2 13
proclamation by President Herbert Hoover PP-HH 2 0 7 1 10
proclamation by President Franklin Roosevelt PP-FR 3 0 7 1 11
proclamation by President Harry Truman PP-HT 1 0 0 0 1
proclamation by President Dwight Eisenhower PP-DE 0 0 2 0 2
proclamation by President John Kennedy PP-JK 2 0 0 0 2
proclamation by President Lyndon Johnson PP-LJ 0 0 1 0 1
proclamation by President Jimmy Carter PP-JC 2 2 9 2 15
proclamation by President William Clinton PP-WC 216 1 0 19
proclamation by President George W. Bush PP-GB 2 3 0 0 5
proclamation by President Barack Obama PP-BO 915 5 0 29
proclamation by President Donald Trump PP-DT 1 0 0 0 1
proclamation by President Joseph Biden PP-JB 3 2 0 0 5
total by Presidential proclaimation 61395213165
grand total 86456215208

Another 78 national monuments were reincorporated into other parks or otherwise lost that status, and 8 of the still-existing monuments listed above have had name changes. These include national monuments:

converted to new National Parks of same name (25)
  • Arches
  • Badlands
  • Biscayne
  • Black Canyon Of Gunnison
  • Bryce Canyon
  • Capitol Reef
  • Carlsbad Cave
  • Channel Islands
  • Congaree
  • Death Valley
  • Gates of the Arctic
  • Glacier Bay
  • Grand Canyon
  • Great Sand Dunes
  • Joshua Tree
  • Katmai
  • Kenai Fjords
  • Kobuk Valley
  • Lake Clark
  • Petrified Forest
  • Pinnacles
  • Saguaro
  • White Sands
  • Wrangell-Saint Elias
  • Zion
incorporated into new National Parks with new name (6)
  • Cinder Cone NM and Lassen Peak NM became Lassen Volcanic NP
  • Fort Jefferson NM became part of Dry Tortugas NP
  • Lehman Caves NM became part of Great Basin NP
  • Mount Olympus NM became Olympic NP
  • Sieur de Monts NM became Lafayette NP, later renamed Acadia NP
incorporated into existing National Parks (5)
  • Grand Canyon NM (second NM of that name) and Marble Canyon NM incorporated into Grand Canyon NP
  • Jackson Hole NM incorporated into Grant Teton NP
  • Mukuntuweap NM and Zion NM (second NM of that name) incorporated into Zion NP
converted to National Historic Parks of same name (10)
  • Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
  • Colonial
  • First State
  • Harpers Ferry
  • Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad
  • Homestead
  • Pecos
  • Pullman
  • Reconstruction Era
  • Sitka
converted to National Historic Sites of same name (4)
  • Fort Laramie
  • Honouliuli
  • Minidoka Internment
  • Whitman Mission
converted to National Historic Parks or Sites with new names (6)
  • Chaco Canyon NM became Chaco Culture NHP
  • Edison Laboratory NM became Thomas Edison NHS
  • Fort Sumner NM became Fort Sumner and Fort Moultrie NHP
  • Kino Missions NM became Tumacacori NHP
  • Mound City Group NM became Hopewell Culture NHP
  • Ocmulgee NM became Ocmulgee Mounds NHP
converted to other parks (7)
  • Big Hole Battlefield NM became Big Hole National Battlefield
  • Bering Land Bridge NM, Noatak NM, and Yukon-Charley Rivers NM each became National Preserves with the same names
  • Denali NM became Denali National Preserve and part of existing Denali NP
  • Meriwether Lewis NM became part of Natchez Trace Parkway
  • World War II Valor in the Pacific NM (Hawaii portion) became Pearl Harbor NMem
transferred out of NPS (with National Monument status ending) (15)
  • Becharof NM transferred to FWS
  • Castle Pinckney NM transferred to South Carolina
  • Father Millet Cross NM transferred to New York state
  • Fossil Cycad NM transferred to BLM
  • Holy Cross NM transferred to USFS
  • Lewis and Clark Cavern NM transferred to Montana
  • Old Kasaan NM transferred to USFS
  • Papago Saguaro NM transferred to Arizona
  • Patrick Henry NM deauthorized
  • Santa Rosa Island NM abolished
  • Shoshone Cavern NM transferred to City of Cody, Wyoming
  • Verendrye NM transferred to North Dakota
  • Wheeler NM transferred to USFS
  • Yukon Flats NM transferred to FWS
  • Zuni-Cibola NM reverted to Zuni tribe
name changes (8)
  • Aztec Ruin NM became Aztec Ruins NM
  • Capulin Mountain NM became Capulin Volcano NM
  • Casa Grande NM became Casa Grande Ruins NM
  • Fort Marion NM became Castillo de San Marcos NM
  • Gran Quivira NM became Salinas Pueblo Missions NM
  • Northwestern Hawaiian Islands MNM became Papahanaumokuakea MNM
  • Sunset Crater NM became Sunset Crater Volcano NM
  • World War II Valor in the Pacific NM (California portion) became Tule Lake NM

© 2000-2022, 2023 by Wm. Robert Johnston.
Last modified 10 September 2023.
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