List of U.S. National Monuments

compiled by Wm. Robert Johnston
last updated 22 August 2021

monumentstatedate first
protected
original
authority
date of national monument statustotal area (km2)privately-owned area (km2)managing agency
(if not NPS)
Admiralty Island NM AK 1978PP-JC19804,127.2310 0.0000USFS
African Burial Ground NM NY 1992PP-GB2006 0.0014 0.0000 
Agate Fossil Beds NM NE 1965CON 1965 12.3748 1.2277 
Agua Fria NM AZ 2000PP-WC2000 292.7658 5.5199BLM
Alibates Flint Quarries NM TX 1965CON 1965 5.5481 1.1806 
Aniakchak NM AK 1978PP-JC1978 555.1316 0.0000 
Aztec Ruins NM NM 1923PP-WH1923 1.2885 0.1815 
Bandelier NM NM 1916PP-WW1916 136.2846 0.0900 
Basin and Range NM NV 2015PP-BO20152,865.2674 17.9599BLM
Bears Ears NM UT 2016PP-BO2016 925.7063 0.0000BLM/USFS
Belmont-Paul Women's Equality NM DC 2016PP-BO2016 0.0014 0.0000 
Berryessa Snow Mountain NM CA 2015PP-BO20151,339.2100 0.0000USFS/BLM
Birmingham Civil Rights NM AL 2017PP-BO2017 0.0036 0.0000BLM
Booker T. Washington NM VA 1956CON 1956 0.9672 0.0000 
Browns Canyon NM CO 2015PP-BO2015 87.4607 0.0000BLM/USFS
Buck Island Reef NM VI 1961PP-JK1961 76.9529 0.0000 
Cabrillo NM CA 1913PP-WW1913 0.6473 0.0000 
California Coastal NM CA 2000PP-WC2000 35.8471 0.0000BLM
Camp Nelson NM KY 2013PP-DT2018 1.5383 0  
Canyon de Chelly NM AZ 1931PP-HH1931 339.2884339.2884 
Canyons of the Ancients NM CO 2000PP-WC2000 748.6684 34.9244BLM
Cape Krusenstern NM AK 1978PP-JC19782,626.7989 86.4186 
Capulin Volcano NM NM 1916PP-WW1916 3.2085 0.0000 
Carrizo Plain NM CA 2001PP-WC2001 998.8330107.0920BLM
Casa Grande Ruins NM AZ 1889PP-WW1918 1.9121 0.0000 
Cascade-Siskiyou NM OR 2000PP-WC2000 536.9369 79.9335BLM
Castillo de San Marcos NM FL 1924PP-CC1924 0.0784 0.0001 
Castle Clinton NM NY 1946CON 1946 0.0040 0.0000 
Castle Mountains NM CA 2016PP-BO2016 85.0872 0.0708 
Cedar Breaks NM UT 1933PP-FR1933 24.9068 0.0000 
Cesar E. Chavez NM CA 2012PP-BO2012 0.4717 0.4292NPS/NCC
Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers NM OH 2013PP-BO2013 0.2414 0.0000 
Chimney Rock NM CO 1970PP-BO2012 19.1173 0.0000USFS
Chiricahua NM AZ 1924PP-CC1924 48.6624 0.0095 
Colorado NM CO 1911PP-WT1911 83.1078 0.0000 
Craters Of The Moon NM ID 216.2545 0.0000 
Craters Of The Moon NM ID 1924PP-CC20021,106.7676 0.0000BLM
Devils Postpile NM CA 1911PP-WT1911 3.2383 0.0000 
Devils Tower NM WY 1906PP-TR1906 5.4520 0.0012 
Dinosaur NM CO-UT1915PP-WW1915 850.9807 18.0710 
Effigy Mounds NM IA 1949PP-HT1949 10.2239 0.0000 
El Malpais NM NM 1987CON 1987 462.7463 16.0447 
El Morro NM NM 1906PP-TR1906 5.1748 0.9664 
Florissant Fossil Beds NM CO 1969CON 1969 25.4065 1.1331 
Fort Frederica NM GA 1936CON 1936 1.2357 0.0896 
Fort Matanzas NM FL 1924PP-CC1924 1.2145 0.0065 
Fort McHenry NMHSMD 1925CON 1939 0.1751 0.0000 
Fort Monroe NM VA 2011PP-BO2011 1.4857 0.0000 
Fort Ord NM CA 2012PP-BO2012 59.3188  BLM
Fort Pulaski NM GA 1924PP-CC1924 22.7559 0.0000 
Fort Stanwix NM NY 1935CON 1935 0.0628 0.0000 
Fort Union NM NM 1954CON 1954 2.9162 0.0000 
Fossil Butte NM WY 1972CON 1972 33.1761 0.0000 
Freedom Riders NM AL 2017PP-BO2017 0.0241 0.0000 
George Washington Birthplace NM VA 1930CON 1930 2.6433 0.4166 
George Washington Carver NM MO 1943CON 1943 0.9712 0.0000 
Giant Sequoia NM CA 2000PP-WC20001,427.0268 0.0000USFS
Gila Cliff Dwellings NM NM 1907PP-TR1907 2.1575 0.0000 
Gold Butte NM NV 2016PP-BO20161,201.6614 0.0000BLM
Governors Island NM NY 2001PP-WC2001 0.0927 0.0020 
Grand Canyon-Parashant NM AZ 2000PP-WC20003,398.8414 16.5355BLM
Grand Portage NM MN 1951CON 1958 2.8731 0.0000 
Grand Staircase-Escalante NM UT 1996PP-WC19964,072.5175 10.0281BLM
Hagerman Fossil Beds NM ID 1988CON 1988 17.6085 0.0668 
Hanford Reach NM WA 2000PP-WC2000 786.9150 0.0000DOE/FWS
Hohokam Pima NM AZ 1972CON 1972 6.8392 6.8392 
Homestead NM NE 1936CON 1936 0.8517 0.0000 
Hovenweep NM CO-UT1923PP-WH1923 3.1765 0.0000 
Ironwood Forest NM AZ 2000PP-WC2000 763.3504 19.5544BLM
Jewel Cave NM SD 1908PP-TR1908 15.4327 0.0000 
John Day Fossil Beds NM OR 1974CON 1974 56.9077 1.9081 
Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks NM NM 2001PP-WC2001 21.8692 3.0635BLM
Katahdin Woods and Waters NM ME 2016PP-BO2016 354.3600 0.0000 
Lava Beds NM CA 1925PP-CC1925 188.9575 0.0000 
Little Bighorn Battlefield NM MT 1940CON 1991 3.0972 0.0000 
Marianas Trench MNM Pac 2009PP-GB2009 0.0000 0.0000FWS/NOAA
Medgar and Myrlie Evers Home NM MS 2020CON 2020  
Military Working Dog Teams NM TX 2008CON 2008 0.0 0.0000USAF/AHF
Mill Springs Battlefield NM KY CON 2020  
Misty Fjords NM AK 1978PP-JC19809,283.7800 0.0000USFS
Mojave Trails NM CA 2016PP-BO20166,474.9703 0.0000BLM
Montezuma Castle NM AZ 1906PP-TR1906 4.1097 0.0681 
Mount Saint Helens NVM WA 1982CON 1982 458.1244  USFS
Muir Woods NM CA 1908PP-TR1908 2.2401 0.0000 
Natural Bridges NM UT 1908PP-TR1908 30.9038 0.0000 
Navajo NM AZ 1909PP-WT1909 1.4569 0.0000 
Newberry NVM OR 1990CON 1990 231.9780  USFS
Northeast Canyons and Seamounts MNM MA 2016PP-BO2016 0.0000 0.0000NOAA/FWS
Oregon Caves NM OR 1909PP-WT1909 18.4295 0.0000 
Organ Mountains-Desert Peaks NM NM 2014PP-BO20142,361.1869 40.1651BLM
Organ Pipe Cactus NM AZ 1937PP-FR19371,338.2503 0.1763 
Pacific Remote Islands MNM Pac 2009PP-GB2009 31.2984 0.0000FWS
Papahanaumokuakea MNM HI 1909PP-TR2006 12.9985 0.0000NOAA/FWS/HI
Petroglyph NM NM 1990CON 1990 29.1750 0.4506 
Pipe Spring NM AZ 1923PP-WH1923 0.1619 0.0000 
Pipestone NM MN 1937CON 1937 1.1403 0.0000 
Pompeys Pillar NM MT 2001PP-WC2001 0.2064 0.0000BLM
Poverty Point NM LA 1988CON 1988 3.6861 2.0061 
Prehistoric Trackways NM NM 2009CON 2009 21.3674 0.0000BLM
President Lincoln and Soldiers' HomeNM DC 1973PP-WC2000 0.0093 0.0093AFRH/NTHP
Pullman NM IL 2015PP-BO2015 0.0016 0.0000 
Rainbow Bridge NM UT 1910PP-WT1910 0.6475 0.0000 
Rio Grande Del Norte NM NM 2013PP-BO20131,257.4797116.7639BLM
Rose Atoll MNM AS 2009PP-GB2009 0.0850 0.0000FWS/NOAA
Russell Cave NM AL 1961PP-JK1961 1.2563 0.0000 
Saint Francis Dam NM CA 1.4285 0.0000USFS
Salinas Pueblo Missions NM NM 1909PP-WT1909 4.3359 0.3262 
San Gabriel Mountains NM CA 2014PP-BO20141,397.0639  USFS
San Juan Islands NM WA 2013PP-BO2013 3.9255 0.0000BLM
Sand to Snow NM CA 2016PP-BO2016 622.9812 0.0000BLM/USFS
Santa Rosa and San Jacinto MountainsNM CA 2000CON 20001,133.1562263.1954BLM/USFS
Scotts Bluff NM NE 1919PP-WW1919 12.1597 0.1804 
Sonoran Desert NM AZ 2001PP-WC20012,008.8595 24.6858BLM
Statue of Liberty NM NY-NJ1924PP-CC1924 0.2363 0.0000 
Stonewall NM NY 2016PP-BO2016 0.0312 0.0002 
Sunset Crater Volcano NM AZ 1930PP-HH1933 12.3024 0.0000 
Timpanogos Cave NM UT 1922PP-WH1933 1.0117 0.0000 
Tonto NM AZ 1907PP-TR1907 4.5325 0.0000 
Tule Lake NM CA 2006PP-GB2019 0.1513 0.0000 
Tule Springs Fossil Beds NM NV 2014CON 2014 91.6613 0.0000 
Tuzigoot NM AZ 1939PP-FR1939 3.2856 1.7416 
Upper Missouri River Breaks NM MT 2001PP-WC20012,014.6101330.6889BLM
Vermillion Cliffs NM AZ 2000PP-WC20001,188.5091 2.7640BLM
Virgin Islands Coral Reef NM VI 2001PP-WC2001 51.4277 0.0000 
Waco Mammoth NM TX 2015PP-BO2015 0.4339 0.0000 
Walnut Canyon NM AZ 1915PP-WW1915 12.9524 1.1244 
Wupatki NM AZ 1924PP-CC1924 143.2661 0.0000 
Yucca House NM CO 1919PP-WW1919 0.1371 0.0000 

Note: Monuments are denoted as either national monuments (NM), marine national monuments (MNM), national volcanic monuments (NVM), or national monument and historic shrine (NMHS). Managing agencies include:

A breakdown of the current 125 national monuments by managing agency is:

Original authority refers to the act creating the park, either act of Congress or Presidential proclaimation under the Antiquities Act. The table below identifies the codes used for original authority and gives counts of the following:

designating authoritycodecounts
current NM,
NPS
current NM,
non-NPS
no longer NM,
still NPS unit
no longer NM,
not in NPS
total
act of Congress CON 24 510 2 41
proclamation by President Theodore Roosevelt PP-TR 9 0 8 2 19
proclamation by President William Taft PP-WT 6 0 3 1 10
proclamation by President Woodrow Wilson PP-WW 8 0 3 3 14
proclamation by President Warren Harding PP-WH 4 0 3 1 8
proclamation by President Calvin Coolidge PP-CC 8 0 3 2 13
proclamation by President Herbert Hoover PP-HH 2 0 7 1 10
proclamation by President Franklin Roosevelt PP-FR 3 0 7 1 11
proclamation by President Harry Truman PP-HT 1 0 0 0 1
proclamation by President Dwight Eisenhower PP-DE 0 0 2 0 2
proclamation by President John Kennedy PP-JK 2 0 0 0 2
proclamation by President Lyndon Johnson PP-LJ 0 0 1 0 1
proclamation by President Jimmy Carter PP-JC 2 2 9 2 15
proclamation by President William Clinton PP-WC 216 1 0 19
proclamation by President George W. Bush PP-GB 2 3 0 0 5
proclamation by President Barack Obama PP-BO 916 4 0 29
proclamation by President Donald Trump PP-DT 1 0 0 0 1
total by Presidential proclaimation 59375113160
grand total 83416115201


Another 76 national monuments were reincorporated into other parks or otherwise lost that status, and 7 of the still-existing monuments listed above have had name changes. These include national monuments:

converted to new National Parks of same name
  • Arches
  • Badlands
  • Biscayne
  • Black Canyon Of Gunnison
  • Bryce Canyon
  • Capitol Reef
  • Carlsbad Cave
  • Channel Islands
  • Congaree
  • Death Valley
  • Gates of the Arctic
  • Glacier Bay
  • Grand Canyon
  • Great Sand Dunes
  • Joshua Tree
  • Katmai
  • Kenai Fjords
  • Kobuk Valley
  • Lake Clark
  • Petrified Forest
  • Pinnacles
  • Saguaro
  • White Sands
  • Wrangell-Saint Elias
  • Zion
incorporated into new National Parks with new name
  • Cinder Cone NM and Lassen Peak NM became Lassen Volcanic NP
  • Fort Jefferson NM became part of Dry Tortugas NP
  • Lehman Caves NM became part of Great Basin NP
  • Mount Olympus NM became Olympic NP
  • Sieur de Monts NM became Lafayette NP, later renamed Acadia NP
incorporated into existing National Parks
  • Grand Canyon NM (second NM of that name) and Marble Canyon NM incorporated into Grand Canyon NP
  • Jackson Hole NM incorporated into Grant Teton NP
  • Mukuntuweap NM and Zion NM (second NM of that name) incorporated into Zion NP
converted to National Historic Parks of same name
  • Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
  • Colonial
  • First State
  • Harpers Ferry
  • Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad
  • Homestead
  • Pecos
  • Reconstruction Era
  • Sitka
converted to National Historic Sites of same name
  • Fort Laramie
  • Honouliuli
  • Minidoka Internment
  • Whitman Mission
converted to National Historic Parks or Sites with new names
  • Chaco Canyon NM became Chaco Culture NHP
  • Edison Laboratory NM became Thomas Edison NHS
  • Fort Sumner NM became Fort Sumner and Fort Moultrie NHP
  • Kino Missions NM became Tumacacori NHP
  • Mound City Group NM became Hopewell Culture NHP
  • Ocmulgee NM became Ocmulgee Mounds NHP
converted to other parks
  • Big Hole Battlefield NM became Big Hole National Battlefield
  • Bering Land Bridge NM, Noatak NM, and Yukon-Charley Rivers NM each became National Preserves with the same names
  • Denali NM became Denali National Preserve and part of existing Denali NP
  • Meriwether Lewis NM became part of Natchez Trace Parkway
  • World War II Valor in the Pacific NM (Hawaii portion) became Pearl Harbor NMem
transferred out of NPS (with National Monument status ending)
  • Becharof NM transferred to FWS
  • Castle Pinckney NM transferred to South Carolina
  • Father Millet Cross NM transferred to New York state
  • Fossil Cycad NM transferred to BLM
  • Holy Cross NM transferred to USFS
  • Lewis and Clark Cavern NM transferred to Montana
  • Old Kasaan NM transferred to USFS
  • Papago Saguaro NM transferred to Arizona
  • Patrick Henry NM deauthorized
  • Santa Rosa Island NM abolished
  • Shoshone Cavern NM transferred to City of Cody, Wyoming
  • Verendrye NM transferred to North Dakota
  • Wheeler NM transferred to USFS
  • Yukon Flats NM transferred to FWS
  • Zuni-Cibola NM reverted to Zuni tribe
name changes
  • Aztec Ruin NM became Aztec Ruins NM
  • Capulin Mountain NM became Capulin Volcano NM
  • Casa Grande NM became Casa Grande Ruins NM
  • Fort Marion NM became Castillo de San Marcos NM
  • Gran Quivira NM became Salinas Pueblo Missions NM
  • Northwestern Hawaiian Islands MNM became Papahanaumokuakea MNM
  • Sunset Crater NM became Sunset Crater Volcano NM
  • World War II Valor in the Pacific NM (California portion) became Tule Lake NM


© 2000-2020, 2021 by Wm. Robert Johnston.
Last modified 22 August 2021.
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